Jargon Buster: Demystifying IT Terminology 

Cybersecurity Edition 

Jargon Buster

The jargon buster aims to give simple, plain English explanations of typical words and/or phrases used in security and cybersecurity, making it easier to stay informed.

    Zero Trust:

    Security approach assuming no inherent trust, requiring continual user and device authentication.

     

    Phishing:

    Cyberattack where malicious actors impersonate entities to trick individuals into revealing sensitive information.

     

    Ransomware:

    Malicious software encrypting files, demanding ransom for decryption; paying does not guarantee data return.

     

    Malware:

    Malicious software (viruses, Trojans, worms, spyware) designed to harm or exploit computer systems.

     

    Penetration Testing (Pen Test):

    Simulating cyberattacks to identify system vulnerabilities and weaknesses.

     

    Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA):

    Security process requiring two or more forms of identification for enhanced login security.

     

    Firewall:

    Network security device or software filtering traffic based on predefined rules, acting as a barrier between trusted and untrusted networks.

     

    Encryption:

    Converting data into code to prevent unauthorised access, ensuring unreadability without decryption key.

     

    Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI):

    Information about potential cybersecurity threats, including tactics employed by malicious actors.

     

    Incident Response (IR):

    Structured approach to addressing and managing the aftermath of a cybersecurity incident.

     

    Patch Management:

    Regularly updating software, operating systems, and applications to fix known vulnerabilities.

     

    DDoS Attack (Distributed Denial of Service):

    Attack flooding a target system with traffic from compromised computers (botnets).

     

    Vulnerability Assessment:

    Identifying, classifying, and prioritising security vulnerabilities in systems, networks, and applications.

     

    Two-Factor Authentication (2FA):

    Security process requiring users to provide two authentication factors for enhanced login security.

     

    Endpoint Security:

    Protection of individual devices from cybersecurity threats.

    Data Breach: Incident where sensitive data is accessed, disclosed, or stolen by unauthorized individuals or entities.

     

    Security Audit:

    Evaluation of an organisation’s security policies, practices, and controls for effectiveness and compliance.

     

    SOC (Security Operations Centre):

    Centralised unit monitoring, detecting, and responding to cybersecurity incidents in real-time.

     

    DMZ (Demilitarised Zone):

    Network segment separating internal and external networks, often used for public-facing services.

     

    SIEM (Security Information and Event Management):

    Software providing real-time analysis of security alerts from various network sources.

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