What is Security Management? 

Security Management alternatively, Cyber security is the protection of computer systems, devices, and networks from information theft or damage to hardware, software, data, or disruption of processes and services.

It is essential to all businesses and organisations from health care, large corporations etc. as data is the cornerstone of any organisation.

Basic Terminologies 

Network: the connection between two or more computers that can communicate with one another.  

Internet: means of connecting a computer to another computer anywhere via dedicated routers and servers.

IP Address: an address assigned to all devices connected to a computer network, an example of an IP address is:

Internet Protocols: a set of rules that are followed to control the internet flow. 

MAC Address: unique identification number that every device (phone, tablet, PC) has to connect to the internet. Typical MAC addresses are 12-digit numbers i.e., D8-FC-91-C7-A2-EO

Domain Name Server (DNS): seen as the internet’s phonebook. IP addresses and links are saved into a DNS. 

BOTs: computer programs that control computers, without our knowledge. Automatically send emails, retrieve pages etc.

Router: Equipment device that routes data that comes to it and sends the data to the destination on the appropriate path. 

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP): a protocol that assigns IP address to a device that wants to connect to the internet.

Identifying the Types of Attacks 

There are many different types of attacks that could happen. There is always a motive behind the attack, more often being money, and ransoming data.

Main 4 Attacks:

1. Email Attacks

2. Password Attacks

3. Malware Attacks

4. Distributed Denial of Service

Email Attacks: Most popular service, it has become increasingly vulnerable to users and organisations. Common attacks vary from phishing, vishing, smishing, whaling, pharming, scareware, and spyware.

Password Attacks: with five types of password attacks: dictionary attacks, where hackers handle every password that is possible through a dictionary. Brute force, trial, and error method to use to decode passwords/data. Keylogger, keyloggers record all keystrokes on a keyboard, this is used to get access to account details. Shoulder, that focuses on attackers observing users’ keyboards by looking over the user’s shoulder. And lastly, rainbow table, tables contain precomputed hash values, that enable passwords to be found.  

Malware Attacks: Divided into 3 versions.

Worms – standalone programs that run independently and infect systems.

Malware – malicious program/software that damages or disrupts the computer.

Virus – malicious code that replicates by copying itself to another program/document and changes the way a computer works. Requires someone to spread virus willingly or unwillingly without knowledge of system admin or user. 

Distributed Denial of Service: Attack used to restrict user access by flooding traffic that is used to access resources. Using bots, a hacker sends a command to the botnet controller that initiates the bot to attack a server, to make it flooded. Limiting the user’s access on to a site.

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